The Netherlands Antilles
Some religious data.
A. People and religion on the Antilles.
B. The Ecclesiastical situation of the Antilles, 1715-1958.
C. The Dutch Dominicans on the Antilles,1868-2009.
D. The Bishopric of Willemstad,
Curaçao, since 1958.
E. The return of the Dutch Dominicans.
The arrival of Colombian Dominicans on Aruba, April 2009.
F. The Dominican cooperation in the Bible translation in Papiamento.
G. Dutch Missionaries on the Netherlands Antilles from 1868 till 2009.
A. People and Religion.
The islands’ populations are mainly composed of ‘‘blacks’’ (people of African heritage) and mulattos (mixed African and European heritage) except for Saba, which is about evenly divided between people of African and of European (‘‘white’’) descent. Most of the islands have small white minorities.
Migration to Curaçao from other Caribbean islands, Venezuela, and Europe increased after the opening of its oil refinery in 1918. It was closed in the 1990s.
Slaves were the lowest class. Because of the absence of commercial, labour-intensive plantation agriculture, slavery was less cruel when compared to plantation colonies like Surinam or Jamaica.
The slavery and the abolition (1863).
During the colonial period, Curaçao was a major Caribbean centre for the transatlantic slave trade. The Roman Catholic Church played an important role in the repression of African culture, the legitimization of slavery, and preparations for emancipation. On the plantations on Curaçao many slaves were working. Slave rebellions occurred in 1750 and 1795 on Curaçao. There were between 4,000 and 5,000 inhabitants in Bandabou, mostly slaves. The slave Tula had been preparing the insurrection for some weeks.
200th Anniversary of the slave
rebellion on Curaçao, 17 August 1795.
The monument with bird with outstretched wings.
Netherlands Antilles 1995, Mi 339, Sc B 302.
Bird, bell tower (slavenklok).
Netherlands Antilles 1995, Mi 340, Sc B 303.
slavery on Curaçao was abolished in 1863.
The history of this rebellion, you can read it on Internet Wikipedia.
colonists and their slaves worked small plots of land.
On Sint Maarten, the saltpans were exploited and a few small plantations were established.
The abolition of slavery on the French part of Sint Maarten in 1848 resulted in the abolition of slavery on the Dutch side and a slave rebellion on Sint Eustatius.
On Saba and Statia, slaves were emancipated in 1863.
Nearly three-fourths of the people adhere to Roman Catholicism; about one-sixth is Protestant, and there are small minorities of Spiritists, Buddhists, and Jews.
The Sephardic Jewish community
that dates from the 1650s built a synagogue in Willemstad (Curaçao), the oldest
synagogue in continuous use in the Western Hemisphere.
All synagogues contain a Torah Ark, a table from which the Torah is read, and a desk
for the prayer leader.
Here the interior of the Sephardic Jewish Mikvé Israel-Emanuel synagogue in Willemstad, Curaçao, 1732, with a view on the Torah Ark.
250th Anniversary of the Sephardic Community Mikvé Israel-Emanuel Synagogue, Curaçao.
Netherlands Antilles 1970, Mi 218, Sc 324.
The ark is reminiscent of the Ark of the Covenant which contained the tablets with Ten Commandments. This is the holiest spot in a synagogue, equivalent to the Holy of Holies. The ark is often closed with an ornate curtain, the parochet פרוכת, which hangs outside or inside the ark doors. Spurce: Wikipedia.
The Thorah Ark.
Netherlands Antilles 1982
467, sc 475.
The front of the Synagogue. >>>>>>
The Netherlands Antilles 1982, Mi 468, Sc 476.
A large, raised, reader's platform
called the bimah (בימה) by Ashkenazim and tebah by Sephardim, where the Torah
scroll is placed to be read. Is a feature of all synagogues.
In Sephardi synagogues it is also used as the prayer leader's reading desk.
The Netherlands Antilles 1982, Mi469, Sc 477.
Dutch Reformed Protestantism is the religion of the traditional white elite and recent Dutch migrants who are less than 3 percent of the population.
Anglicanism, and Adventism are widespread on Statia. Fourteen percent
of Sabans are Anglican. Conservative sects and
the New Age movement are becoming more popular on all the islands.
Pulpit in the
Dutch Reformed Church 'Fortkerk',1767, Willemstad, Curaçao.
Netherlands Antilles 1970, Mi 219, Sc 326.
Brua holds a position similar to that of Obeah on Trinidad. Originating from the word "witch," brua is a mixture of non-Christian spiritual practices. Practitioners use amulets, magic waters, and fortune telling. Montamentu is an ecstatic Afro-Caribbean religion that was introduced by migrants from Santo Domingo in the 1950s. Roman Catholic and African deities are revered.
Roman Catholicism is the prevalent religion on Curaçao (81 percent) and Bonaire (82 percent).
The Ecclesiastical situation on the Antilles.
Apostolic Prefecture of Curaçao, 1715,
Diocese of Caracas, Venezuela.
Vicariate Apostolic of Curaçao, 1772-1958.
discovery of the Islands, now named Netherlands Antilles, by the Spanish in 1493, the first missionaries of Spain intered the Islands. They were
Spanish Hieronymites (Order of St. Jerome) from Santo Domingo,
whose names have been forgotten.
In 1580, the Spanish Dominican Manuel, Martinez de Mazanilo (+1 January 1592) was appointed Bishop of Coro, Venezuela. On 19 November 1581, he took his diocese and signed the official documents with 'Bishop of Venezuela and the islands Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire'. After him, many Spanish Dominicans were Bishop of Venezuela, and so of the Islands till 1738.
Until 1634, Curaçao remained subject to Spain, and Spanish priests attended the mission. Two churches, one at Santa Barbara, the other at Groot-Kwartier, bore witness to their zeal.
In 1634, Curaçao came into the possession of the Dutch West-Indian Company, which forbade, under severe penalties, the practice of the Catholic religion, under the placards of the States General of the Dutch government (Plakaten der Staten-Generaal). This ban was repeated in 1635, 1661 and 1703, but many people from Venezuela settled on Curaçao and introduced Venezuelan priests.
The French Capuchin Victor de Döle was the first Dutch priest on Curaçao, but the Governor Kerckrinck banished him in 1699.
n 1699, the German Jesuit father Michael Alexius Schnabel arrived from his mission station New-Grenada (now Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador), on Curaçao to visit his sister Catherine, Isabel, married with the Government's doctor Jan Schiroski. He found the island without a priest. After many difficulties, he started the pastoral care with a few Dutch Jesuits with success, from 1701 till 1742.
During his work the Congregation de Propaganda Fide founded the Apostolic Prefecture of Curaçao, 1715, diocese of Caracas, Venezuela.
In the midst of the Jesuits, the Spanish Augustinian de Caysedo y Velasco was active. He built a small house, at the same time chapel, on the place where is now the Saint Ann church in Willemstad in 1731. After the departure of the Jesuits in 1742, he continued the mission work with priests from different nationalities till 1776.
The Belgian Dominican J. Michael du Rieu (Dureux) was on Curaçao from September 1742 till September 1743.
In 1751 arrived from Puerto Rico, the Augustinian Miguel Luis Grimon, who started the building of a church near the place of the house, c.q. chapel of de Caysedo (St. Ann church), but he could not finish the church by the lack of finances.
The Dutch Franciscan Conventual Maubach arrived on Curaçao on 14 February 1768. The changes are that it's probable that during his mission work the Congregation de Propaganda Fide elevated Curaçao to Apostolic Prefecture, according to his note on the frontispiece of the first register of baptism. Maubach finished the building of the Saint Ann church. He died on 29 September 1769. So he is (perhaps unofficialy) the first Apostolic Prefect.
The Congregation de Propaganda Fide in Rome declared Curaçao officialy in 1772 a an Apostolic Prefecture with as its first Prefect Apostolic, Arnold de Bruin, a Dutch secular priest. This Prefecture encompasses the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saint Eustatius, Saba and the southern half of Saint Martin (Leeward Islands).
Meanwhile the Nuncio in Brussel, Mgr Ignatius Busca, devoted himself at the Fathers Superior of the religious Orders to find three religiouses for the mission work, of which one might the Apostolic Prefect. On 17 May 1776, the Nuncio informed the Congregation de Propaganda Fide that the Province of the Franciscans in Belgium nominated three confreres . On 18 November 1776, the Franciscans Schenck, Pirovani and Theodorus Brouwer as Vicar Prefect, arrived at Curaçao. with Theodorus Brouwers, O.F.M. as Apostolic Prefect.
After the death of Pirovano,
O.F.M. in 1821, the Franciscan Mission on Curaçao
ended on account of the small number of priests in Nederland.
many attemps, King Willem I of the Netherlands requested two Dutch
diocesan priests in pastoral care in Amsterdam (Nederland), Martinus J. Niewindt
(17 May 1796, ordination 13 July 1819) and the priest Eysenbeil, to go to the mission on Curaçao for a period of five years.
Mgr Martinus Niewindt.
Netherlands Antilles 1960, Mi 107, Sc 270.
They accepted the invitation and sailed on 6 July 1824
with the servant J.C. van den Rijk,
from Amsterdam with 'De Zeemeeuw' to the Caribbean and arrived after 52 days at Curaçao on 27 August 1824.
The contact of Martinus Niewindt with Baron van Spengler, the Governor of the 'Bovenwindse Eilanden', was so important that Pope Leo XIII placed these Islands under
the jurisdiction of the Apostolic Prefecture of Curaçao on 7 January 1827.
Source: 1920. Gouden jubileum der Doiminicaner missie op Curaçao. Nijmegen. P. 3-6.
November 1824, Mgr Niewindt visited Bonaire where he met 11 people who sometime had
confessed and received Communion. Huts at Antriol and Rincon
were the only chapels.
On 23 July 1823, the Reverend Eijsenbeill was appointed vicar of Bonaire and built the first church dedicated to Saint Bernard, patron of the Vicar. After some other tasks, Bernard Eijsenbeil returned to Nederland in August 1829. He was appointed vicar in Westwoude, and in 1835 also deacon of West-Friesland. He died on 15 July 1840.
On 20 December 1842, Curaçao was elevated to a Vicariate Apostolic, with as the first Vicar Apostolic Monsignor M. J. Niewindt. His Coadjutor with right of succession was appointed Mgr Johannes Kistemaker (17.12.1860, resigned 1866) in 1853. In the same year, a Catholic sisterhood came to the mission.
C.The Dutch Dominicans on the Netherlands Antilles, 1868-2009.
The first name is the religious name.
The second the baptismal name.
After the sudden death of Mgr M. Niewind on 12 January 1860, Mgr J. Kistemaker, since 1853 Coadjutor with right of succession, took over the job. He was active in the mission since 1837. His effort undermined his vitality. He repatriated to the Netherlands in 1864. In 1865, he was in Rome to visit the Chairman of the Congregation dePropaganda Fide, Cardinal-Prefect Alessandro Barnabò, requesting assistance of an Order for Curaçao. Kistemaker resigned in 1866.
The Internuntius in the Netherlands, Mgr. G. Cattani, invited the Provincial of the Dutch Dominicans, Thomas Franciscus van der Heijden (1825-1883), to come to Den Haag, in January 1867. There he heard the request of the Congregation de Propaganda Fide.
Thomas van der Heijden presented the request at the Provincial council in June 1867,
but that had objections: the Province was in 1860 separated from the Belgium Province;
many priests were necessary for the own parishes and for the studium; the finances were
limited. The Provincial was allowed to send a detailed memorandum to the Internuntius
in October 1867.
(18 May 1792 - Pope 16 June 1846 - 7 February 1878).
Panama 1956, Mi 495.
After the General Chapter of the Order in Rome (May 1868), the Vicar-Provincial of the Order, Alexandre Jandel (1810-1872), Provincial Thomas van der Heijden, Cardinal-Prefect Alessandro Barnabò and Pope Pius X discussed the question in Rome on 6 June 1868. The result: the Province sent temporarily three fathers and one lay brother to the Antilles. With the words of Pope Pius IX: ‘Confidite: ite in vineam meam (Mt 20,4), in verbo Meo laxate rete; (Lc 5,5)' the objections were removed.
On 9 July 1868, the Congregation de Propaganda Fide published the decree that the Mission of Curaçao was commended to the Dutch Province of the Dominicans.
The Provincial and his Council and the Master of the Order had to send a list with candidates for Apostolic Vicar with the dignity of Bishop.
On 8 June 1869, Mgr Petrus, Alexius, Henricus, Josephus van Ewijk (17.7.1827, professed 5.10.1848,ordination 10.8.1851, on the Antilles 11.7.1870- + 18.5.1886) was appointed Apostolic Vicar of Curaçao. He was consecrated Bishop on 26 July – feast of Saint Anna, patron of Curaçao -, 1869 in the cathedral at Utrecht.
sailed with three confreres on 3 June 1870 to Curaçao, where they arrived on 11
July 1870. His confreres were Reginaldus, Cornelius Schrauwen (4 July 1831,
professed 10 June 851, ordination 21 October 1855, on the Antilles 11 July 1870,
reyturn to Nederland 9 November 1880, +
6 May 1887); Hyacinthus, Marinus Bergmans (8 March 1839, professed 12 May 1861,
ordination 5 August 1866, on the Antilles 11 July 1870 + 19 November 1870) and lay brother
Josephus Köller (15 December 1834, professed 2 August 1868, on the Antilles 11
July 1870-+ 11 March 1919).
A new activity of the Dutch Dominicans started till 30 April 2009.
Dr. Marit Monteiro described this process in her work: 'Gods Predikers. Dominicanen in Nederland (1795-2000). 2008. Marit Monteiro en Uitgeverij Verloren. Hilversum. ISBN 978-90-8704-030-7. P. 165-176.
Many Dutch Dominicans worked on the Antilles on very different fields since 1870. In honour of their golden Jubilee, the book was published 'Gouden jubileum der dominikaner missie op Curaçao W.I. 1870-1920.' N.V. Centrale drukkerij, Nijmegen. Z.j. (1920). Dr. Marit Monteiro prepared the accounts. O.c. p. 331-334.
1. Bishop Petrus, Alexius Hendricus Josephus van Ewijk, O.P., born 17 July 1827, professed 15 October 1848, ordination 10 August 1861, consecrated Bishop 5 June 1869, on the Antilles 11 July 1870, + 18 May 1886.
Apostolic of Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles, 5 June 1869 till 5 June 1886.
Titular Bishop of Camachus 1869.06.05 – 1886.
2. Bishop Ceslaus Hendrikus, Jacobus Reynen, O.P., born 29 November 1835, professed 14 November 1858, ordination 10 August 1863, on the Antilles 14 September 1884, consecrated Bishop -- , Vicar Apostolic of Curaçao 1886 – + 10 May 1887. Titular Bishop of ?????
Bishop Alphonsus, Maria, Henricus Joosten, O.P., born 1 December 1837, professed
14 November 1858, ordination 10 August 1863, on the Antilles 16 May 1888,
consecrated Bishop ----, Vicar Apostolic of Curaçao 1888 – 1896,
return to Nederland 7 March 1895, + 7 September 1896.
Titular Bishop of Marciana (1888 – 1896.
4. Ambrosius Jacobus Joannes van Baars, O.P., born 6 April 1854, professed 28 October 1873, ordination 15 August 1879, on the Antilles 17 June 1881, consecrated Bishop 1897, Vicar Apostolic of Curaçao 15 February 1897-1910, return to Nederland 13 June 1909, + 25 March 1910. Titular Bishop of Teuchira (15 February 1897 – 1910.
5.Gregorius, Michael Antonius Maria Vuylsteke, O.P., born 31 July 1869, professed 23 September 1889, ordination15 August 1895, on the Antilles 17 October 1910, consecrated Bishop 6 October 1910, Vicar Apostolic 6 October 1910- + 4 August 1930.
Titular Bishop of Charadrus (6 October 1910 – 4 August 1930.
6. Bishop Pietro Giovanni Umberto Verriet, O.P., born 4 November 1880, professed -- , ordination 15 August 1905, on the Antilles 16 May 1909, consecrated Bishop 6 January 1931, Vicar Apostolic 13 November 1931 - + 10 March 1948. Titular Bishop of Eleutherna 13 November (1931– 10 March 1948.
7.Bishop Antonio Ludovico
Jacob, Thielen Van der Veen Zeppenfeldt, O.P., born 11 October 1891,
professed 23 September 1912, ordination 15 August 1918, on the Antilles 8 June
1919, consecrated Bishop
30 December 1948, Vicar Apostolic 11 November 1948, + 4 July 1957.
Titular Bishop of Acholla 11 November 1948. – 4 July 1957.
After WO II, the Dominican presence and influence on the Netherlands Antilles grew.
On 28 April 1958, Pope Pius XII elevated the Apostolic Vicariate of Curaçao to a diocese. It was those years, - 1957 and 1958 -, when all the vicariates in the Caribbean became dioceses. Michael, Joannes, Maria Holterman, O.P. was appointed Bishop of Willemstad, Curaçao on 16 December 1956.
D. The Bishopric of Willemstad, Curaçao since 28 April 1958.
8. Bishop Joannes Maria
Michael Holterman, O.P., (1 November 1906, professed 23 September 1926,
ordination 15 July 1931, on the Antilles 28 September 1932 + 22.10.1988);
appointed Vicar Apostolic 16 December 1956, consecrated Bishop 25 March 1957; Titular Bishop of Vagada. The
diocese of Curaçao is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Port of Spain, and a member of the
Antilles Episcopal Conference.
Mgr Holterman retired 1 August `972 and returned to Nederland, where he died on 22 October 1988.
Monsignor Michael, Johannes, Maria Holterman O.P. wrote in his statement of 28 June
1958: " Our Vicariate has become autonomous. The bishop, as a successor of the
Apostles, who continue the task instituted by Christ himself, will do the same
to accomplish his work with due authority under the primacy of the Pope of Rome.
During those 116 years of existence, the Vicariate has developed in such a manner that it now possesses what is needed and worthy to be elevated as a Diocese".
On Saturday, 18th of October, the Feast of Saint Luke the Evangelist, Monsignor Holterman was installed as the first Bishop of Willemstad. He asked the permission from Rome to take the Church of Pietermaai (Punda) as the new Cathedral church instead of the pro-cathedral Sta. Ana. This church (Otrobanda) however, became a Basilica in 1975.
Sunday, 19th of October, Monsignor Holterman celebrated his first Pontifical Mass at the new Cathedral of Pietermaai. On this same date at the Ref Stadium, with the presence of the catholic populace of Curaçao, was celebrated the Consecration of the new Diocese of Willemstad to the Virgin Mary:" The Immaculate Conception"
successor was Mgr Wilhelm Michel Ellis (1973 - 2001).
On Sunday 13 May 1990, Pope John Paul II visited the diocese Willemstad.
In 2001, Mgr Luigi Antonio Secco, S.D.B. was appointed bishop of Willemstad. In 2008 the Diocese of Willemstad celebrated the 50th anniversary of the diocese.
As consequence of the decisions of Vaticanum II the 'Jus commissionis' was abolished in 1969. Via this system the Congregation de Propaganda Fide had missionary work in a specific land entrusted to Orders and Congregations. The transformation of the classic idea of missionary to the idea of diocese and archdiocese caused many problems, also for the Dominicans on the Netherlands Antilles.
Among others Vicars-Provincial, Adelbertus, Nicolaas, Cornelis Erkamp, O.P. (10 October 1921, professed 18September 1942, ordination 1 August 1948, on the Antilles - - , return to Nederland -?-, + 10 December 2004) was an important Vicar-Provincial in this period. For he developments from 1969 till 2000, see Dr. Marit Monteiro, o.c. p. 755-776.
E. Return of the
and the arrival of three Colombian Dominicans, 2009.
The number of Dutch Dominicans gradually decreased
to 15 in 2000 and to 7 in 2008.
Johannes (Jan), H.G. Bouman, O.P. (4 July 1929, professed18 September 1953, ordination 25 July 1959, on the Antilles 6 September 1961, return to Nederland 29 December 2008) returned from Aruba to Nederland on 29 December 2008.
Antonius (Toine), D. Frehe, O.P. (22 October 1933, professed 18 September 1955, ordination 25 July 1961, on the Antilles 1962, return to Nederland 30 April 2009)) and Petrus (Piet), Remigius, Johannes Magnin, O.P. (11 March 1939, professed 19 March 1957, on the Antilles 7 February 1965, ordination 25 March 2000, return to Nederland 30 April 2009).
For the religious and pastoral training in the Centro Pastoral Aruba, three Colombian Dominicans arrived on Aruba in April 2009: Wilson Fernando Mondoza Rivera, Juan Ubaldo López Salamanca and Bayron Antonio Dávila Díaz.
The last Dutch Dominicans returned to Nederland on 27 June 2009:
The Dominicans Wybe, Joseph Fransen (3 September 1938, professed 18 September 1958, ordination 23 July 1964, on the Antilles 27 August 1965,return to Nederland 26 June 2009), and Jacobus (Jacques) van der Lee (22 December 939, professed 18 September 1960, ordination 11 July 1966, on the Antilles 29 August 1967,return to Nederland 26 June 2009), returned to Nederland 26 June 2009.
So the story ended after 139 years actual presence, - 1 July 1870--26 June 2009 -, of the 193 Dutch Dominicans on the Netherlands Antilles.
: Bulletin van de Nederlandse Dominicanen, volume 43 (2008)and 44 2009).
The Bishop of Willemstad, Curaçao, Mgr. L.A. Secco, SDB, wrote a letter of thanks to Ben Vocking, Provincial of the Dominican province of Nederland. Bulletin van de Nederlandse Dominicanen, volume 44, May 2009.
F. The Dominican cooperation in the Bible-translation in Papiamento.
The traditional theory is that Papiamento language developed in the Caribbean, from a Portuguese-African pidgin used for communication between the African slaves and the Portuguese-speaking slave traders. For religious and political reasons, the traders were mostly Jews of Portuguese origin.
The Judaeo-Portuguese population of the islands increased substantially after 1654, when the Portuguese recovered the Dutch-held territories in Northeast Brazil — causing most of the Portuguese-speaking Jews in those lands to flee, for fear of being punished as Dutch collaborators.
Papiamento is linguistically similar to Ladino, the language of early Portuguese/Spanish Sephardic communities. Since many early residents of Curaçao were Sephardic Jews either from Portugal, Spain, or Portugese Brazil, it is logical that they brought their language with them and continued to speak it among themselves and in communicating with their servants and employees.
These servants and employees would have used the language with their own modifications and taught it to their families since jobs existed for those who spoke it. As the Jewish community became the prime merchants and traders in the area, business and everyday trading was conducted in Papiamento/Ladino. As various nations owned the island and official languages changed with ownership, Papiamento/Ladino became the constant language of the residents.
The Franciscans preached in Papiamento in 1776. The catechism of Mgr Niewind of 1825 is the oldest known text. In 1882 there was a Bible Lectionary for Sun - and Feast Days. The United Protestant Communities on Aruba (VPG) published in 1919 a translation of the New Testament in Papiamento; in 1946 the Old Testament.
This Bible was presented on 12 March 1997.
Translation of the Bible in Papiamento. Netherlands Antilles 1996, Mi 865, Sc 765.
A complete new translation was
realized by an interdenominational team with among others the Dominicans
Bernardinus, Gerard, Petrus, Adrianus van Baars (2 September 1926, professed -18
ordination 25 July 1954, on the Antilles - + 18 October 1995); Thomas, Henricus, B.
Willers (20 June 1921, professed 18 September 1940, ordination 28 July 1946, on the Antilles
9 December 1955, + 2 May 2000); Antoon, L. Boks (13 August 1940, professed
18 September 1960,
ordination 10 July 1966, on the Antilles around 1970, return to Nederland around 2002 ).
Antoon, B. Stikvoort (8 July 1934, professed 2 February 1954, ordination 25 July 1959, on the Antilles as co-operator from -- till --- ).
Wybe, J.Fransen, O.P. is in demand to produce a study-Bible in the Papiamento, in cooperation with Antonius (Antoon), Leonardus Boks, O.P.
G. The activities of Dutch Religious
Sisters, Brothers, Fathers
on the Antilles from 1842 till 2000.
Franciscan Sisters of
Franciscan Sisters of Breda (1855-1930): 146 Sisters.
Dominican Sisters of Voorschoten(1890-1953)): - - Sisters.
Sisters of Schijndel (1920-1984): 109 Sisters.
Dominican Sisters of Bethanië (1952-??): 25 Sisters.
Sisters of the Godd.Voorzienigheid (1955- 1981): ?? Sisters.
Sisters Franciscan Missionaries of Asten
(1957- ??): 42
Fraters van Tilburg (1886-1986): 193 Brothers.
Broeders van Dongen (1948-1978): 55 Brothers.
Kruisvaarders van Sint Jan (1937-196?): 27 Members.
Frères of Jean-Baptiste de La
Salle (1937-2000): ca 40 Brothers.
Salesians, S.D.B. (1898-2008): 16 Fathers.
Lazarists, C.M. (1957-1964): 10 Fathers
Dutch Dominicans, O.P.
(1870-2009): 193 Fathers.
Source: Marcha, Dr. Waldemar. 2009. Gods Wijngaard in De West. Caribic Publishing B.V. Uitgeverij WP, Amsterdam.ISBN 978-090-6665-928-5.NUR 523. Pp. 686-710.
For some historical data of the Netherlands
click to PART I.
For the history of
Family, - fathers, lay Dominicans and sisters -,
on the Netherlands Antilles, click
Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saint Eustatius, Sint Maarten and Saba.
Literature and sources:
Monteiro, Dr. Marit. 2008. Gods Predikers. Dominicanen in Nederland (1795-2000). Marit Monteiro en Uitgeverij Verloren. Hilversum. ISBN 978-90-8704-030-7.
Bulletin van de Nederlandse
Dominicanen, vol. 44, August 2009, p. 8.
De Jong, Ton en Hendrikse, Norbert. 2008. De gezegende erfenis. Nalatenschap van 1200 Nederlandse religieuzen op Curaçao. Ton de Jong, Hilvarenbeek. ISBN 978-907747-23-0. NUR 686.
Marcha, Dr. Waldemar. 2009. Gods Wijngaard in De West. Caribic Publishing B.V. Uitgeverij WP, Amsterdam. ISBN 978-090-6665-928-5.NUR 523.
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