Dominic, founder of the order,
ca.1174 - 6 August 1221.
His Life and Activities.
Hinnebusch, O.P., William, A. 1975. The Dominicans, a short history.
Hellmeier, O.P., Paul Dominikus. 2007. Dominikus begegnen. Sankt Ulrich Verlag, Augsburg. ISBN 978-3-936484-92-2.
Tugwell, O.P., Simon. 1998.De heilige Dominicus.
Editions du Signe, Strassbourg Cedec 2. ISBN 2-87718-645-8. Translation in
Wikipedia s.v. Libéral Arts; s.v. Alfonso VIII; s.v. Council of the Lateran, etc.
Dominic de Guzmán, Spanish in full Domingo de Guzmán, was born ca. 1174 in the village of Caleruega in north-central Spain (Castile) to Felix de Guzmán and Juana de Aza (1140-1202). Hellmeier thinks that Dominic's family was a settled family and so associated with the church that they let Dominic to be educated for an ecclesiastical office. (Hellmeier, o.c. p. 22) As a boy of six or seven years, his parents sent him to his mother's brother, a priest, to study the rudiments: reading, writing, arithmetic.
1186/87 - 1198: in Palencia.
When he was about thirteen (1186/1187), he went to the cathedral school of Palencia to study the 'Liberal Arts', 'Artes Liberales': the Trivium: 1. grammar, 2. rhetoric, 3. logic. The Quadrivium: 4. geometry, 5. arithmetic, 6. music, 7. astronomy . And then, Dominic studied four years philosophy and theology.
At the end of his studies, 1196-1198, a great famine scourged Castile. Dominic, living in Palencia, manifested his great generosity, and sold his books to help the poor and to gain additional funds to help. This fact showed Dominic's character: feel pity with the people, but also do something. (Hellmeier, o.c. p. 24-25).
1197/98 - 1203: Canon Regular in Osma.
The fame of this fact had come to Martin de Bazan's attention, Bishop of Osma, since 1181 till his death in 1201. He looked for young, inspired men, to reform his Chapter. His prior, Diego de Acebed (+1207), was his stimulating companion. He invited Dominic, who had completed his studies, to join the Chapter of Canons Regular of the cathedral of Osma in 1197/1198. Soon afterwards, Dominic was ordained a priest, appointed as 'Sacrista Major', and elected as supprior in 1201.
October 1203 - February 1204: first journey to the 'Marken'.
King Alfonso VIII (11 November 1155 - King of Castile 1158 - 5 October 1214) made Diego de Acebes, since 1201 Bishop of Osma, responsable for a visit to the 'Marken', - Scandinavia, North Deutschland or Denmark -, on behalf of his son Ferdinand (29 September 1189-1211) to secure a bride. Bishop Diego chose among others Dominic as his companion.
NB When the bride was a daughter of a Denmark's king, then this King may be Knud IV (also VI), (1163 - King 1182-12 November 1202); he married 1171 Gertrude of Saxony. But there were no children in this marriage. Or Valdemar II, the Victorious (9 May 1170 - King 1202-1241).
In passing through the Southern part of France, the travellers came to meet the Albigensian heretics in Toulouse. The innkeeper where they stayed on their first night was a member of the sect. Bishop Diego was in confusion, but Dominic did what appeared him as the best. He stayed up all night arguing with his host. With the rising of the sun, the man gave up his heresy and returned to the Catholic faith.
After many troubles Bishop Diego with his group arrived at the 'Marken ', and received the consent of the King. Then they returned to Spain with the good message for King Alfonso and his son Ferdinand.
End May 1204.
Pope Innocent III (1160/61 - Pope 8 January 1198 - 16 July 1216) appointed three Cistercians as his Legates, among others Arnaud Amalrik, Abbot of Citeaux as spiritual leader, with the commission to convert the heretics in the South of France, - Catharians, Albigenses and Waldenses -, by preaching, and to bring the obstinates to trial.. Tugwell, o.c. p. 9.
October 1205 - 30 December 1207: second journey to the 'Marken'.
Bishop Diego, Dominic and other Canons travelled joyfully to the 'Marken', to conduct the princess to Leon, Spain. Travelling through Southern France they met Cumanen, fearsome fighters, which had devastated many villages in North Germany.
When the group arrived at the palace of the King of the 'Marken', they heard that the princess had dies. Diego sent a courier to the court of Alfonso.
1206: Bishop Diego and his Canons in Rome.
Diego, Dominic and the Canons decided to visit Pope Innocent III in Rome. Diego tendered the resignation of his diocese, and asked the Pope's permission to start a mission to the Cumanen. This was not allowed: the Pope ordered him to return to Osma. Hellmeier, o.c. p. 30.
1206: Bishop Diego and his group in Citeaux.
Diego and his group set of to visit the abbey of the Cistercians in Citeaux. Earlier Diego had founded a monastery of Cistercian nuns in his Diocese and sought some pastors for these nuns. Hellmeier, o.c. p. 30-31.
January 1206: Bishop Diego and his group
Hellmeier o.c. 31-32; 37-41.
Travelling from Citeaux to Osma, Diego and his group met in Montpellier (1206) by accident the consultation between the three Papal Legates: Petrus de Castelneau, Raoul de Fontfroide and Arnoud de Citeaux, leader of the mission. From end 1204 till begin 2006, they preached against the heretics without result, and were heartily discouraged. Diego and his group discussed with the Delegates and introduced their view on the approach of the heretics. These men and women were common people, who would live as Christ and the first Christians. They were not educated in the theological background of the errors. They had also an aversion of the great pomp of the Papal Delegation.
The heretic leaders lived an austere life, kept long fasts, travelled on foot, and preached in apostolic simplicity. Bishop Diego advised the Legates: "Send home your retinues then, and go about on foot two by two, in imitation of the Apostles, and then the Lord will bless your efforts."
The Legates dismissed their retinues, and kept only 'books and other necessities', as Jordan of Saxony reports.
While Abbot Arnoud returned to Citeaux, Diego and his
group and the two Papal Legates, began immediately with the preaching in
Languedoc. They went barefoot trough villages and towns, - Hellmeir o.c.
p. 38 - and disputed with the leaders of the heretics in Servian and Béziers
and 3 February - 16 March 1207 in Montréal.
After each debate, each side presented a written summary of its arguments to its opponents. The Albigenses subjected one of Dominic's summaries to a trial by fire. Three times they threw them into the fire but each time the flames cast it forth untouched. 130 Cartharians converted.
In the village Montréal (and not in Montpellier such as Jordan meant) twelve Cistercian Abbots without great pomp, and four Bishops of the dioceses where the heretics were active, consulted about their approach of the situation. Diego travelled to Osma and back to support the approach of the preaching by collecting foods, books and regulating places to stay. So in the monastery in Prouille, founded by him in 1206. Also Dominic was concerned in these actions and was discharged as supprior.
Springtime 1206: the founding of the monastery in Prouille, France.
Hellmeier, o.c. p.130 -132.
At the beginning of their preaching, Bishop Diego and his Canons met some women, living in a community of the Cathars in Fanjeaux. Hellmeier thinks that they, Inspired by the preaching of Dominic, were converted to the Catholicism, and had to leave their community. But where to live?
Bishop Diego obtained in the rural setting of Fanjeaux a territory with a unused church of the Blessed Virgin in Prouille. There he built a monastery for these women. He travelled to Osma to find resources for this small community in his diocese. Also Dominic was active as fund raiser.
Bishop Fulko (Foulques) of Toulouse, - Prouille was situated in his diocese -, was reserved, because of his diocese having many economical problems. Bishop Diego and Dominic demonstrated again their realistic acumen.
After the death of Diego (1207) and the return of Dominic to Osma (1208), the sisters of the monastery lived in absolute poverty.
Wikipedia, s.v. Prouille:
About twelve women, including Raymonde Claret, were the first nuns of Prouille, under the Rule of Augustine: for several months some of them lodged at Fanjeaux, perhaps in the house of the first prioress of Prouille, Guillelmine de Fanjeaux, because the buildings at Prouille were scarcely habitable.
On 17 April 1207 — the first certain date in the history of Notre-Dame-de-Prouille — Bishop Bérenger of Narbonne gave the new establishment the revenues of the church of Saint-Martin at Limoux, though this gift was likely to be disputed by the Abbey of Saint-Hilaire.
In 1211, - Dominic had returned to Prouille -, Bishop Foulques of Toulouse gave the revenues of Prouille itself, part of his own income as Bishop, to the house. The most generous donor was Simon IV de Montfort, leader of the Albigensian Crusade, and others followed his example. So the community of Prouille had a fixed basis.
The house was governed, however, by men, initially Dominic himself — the first procurator or prior — and Guillaume Claret. Dominic was succeeded as prior by brother Noel and then by Guillaume Claret.
Other men lived there too, because the second purpose of Prouille was to serve as a base for the itinerant preachers who conducted the work of conversion of the Cathars begun by Diego and Dominic.
As such, the house is sometimes named Sacra Praedicatio, the "Sacred Preaching", in early documents. It has many other names, "church", "abbey", or (in a document of 1211) "the converted ladies living the religious life near the church of 'Sainte-Marie of Prouille'.
Dominic himself placed a special importance on the enclosing of women, yet it was not until 1294, many years after his death, that Prouille became a fully enclosed house. From that date onwards its nuns are described in documents as 'sorores inclusae', 'enclosed sisters'.
The monastery accommodated also girls of poor families, so they did not fall into Catharans hands. The building was also meant as center for the travelling preachers. Hellmeier speaks about 'sogar ein Doppelkloster', o.c. p. 131. In 1221 the strong clausura was initiated.
Summer 1207: Discussion in Pamiers. Hellmeier o.c. p. 40-41.
30 December 1207: Bishop Diego died in Osma.
In late summer 1207, the preachers met the Waldensians in a great discussion in Pamiers. It is not sure whether Dominic was also in Pamiers, but Diego brought their leader, Durandus of Osca with his group, back into the Roman Catholic Church.
A very great problem was the short time of the preaching by a Cistercian, no more than a few months. So it was impossible to continue the preaching and to consolidate the contacts. Bishop Diego would ask the Pope to establish a group of preachers in the heretic area.
But Diego died unexpected on 31 December 1207 in Osma.
Hellmeier o.c. p. 41.
1208: 14 January: Peter de Castelnau murdered in Toulouse.
Pope Innocent III called on the crusade.
: July: The death of the Papal Legate Abbot Raoul of Fontfroide .
: The return of the twelve Cistercian Abbots.
: Dominic's return to Osma.
On 14 January 1208, the Papal Legate, Petrus de Castelnau, was murdered by an emissary of the Count of Toulouse. At the end of his patience, Innocent III proclaimed a crusade against the heretics. He called upon the Christian princes to take up arms. The leader on the papal side was Simon de Montfort, a subject of the King of France. The Albigensian leader was Raymond VI, count of Toulouse, an opponent of the King of France and brother-in-law of King John of England, lord of neighbouring Aquitaine.
1208, the Papal Legate Abbot Raoul de Fontfroide died.
In this year, the all the Cistercian Abbots returned to heir abbeys.
Dominic and a handful of companions persevered with their preaching despite every discouragement. Gradually Dominic came to realize that only a religious Order could give the Church the continuous supply of trained preachers it needed.
After Diego's death, Dominic had as canon of Osma no mandate to continue his preaching in the Languedoc. He returned to Osma, waiting for the appointment of the new Bishop: Menendo on 28 February 1211. Hellmeier, o.c. p. 41.
1211: Dominic returned to France.
Springtime 1214: Dominic received official warrants to preach by the Legate Peter de Benevent.
May 1215: Bishop Foulques of Toulouse appointed Dominic and his group 'as
was again in the South of France to dedicate himself to the organisation of
the preaching on 20 June 1211. Therefore he refused three times a
bishopric in France: Béziers 1212, Couserans 1214/15, and Comminges.
His work confined to the Prouille area continued and six preachers eventually joined him. In the springtime of 1214, he Papal legate Peter de Benevent granted Dominic and his group their own warrants, and an official status. So Dominic was allowed to name himself: 'humilis minister praedicationis'. Hellmeier o.c. p. 48.
Meanwhile, the civil war dragged on until Simon's victory at Muret in 1213. The Catholic party entered Toulouse, and Dominic and his friends were welcomed by Bishop Foulques of Toulouse.
Dominic met here Peter Seilhan, who committed himself to the preachers, and placed his house in Toulouse at Dominic's disposal. Later this Peter was prior of the priory in Limoges.
In May 1215 Bishop Foulques established Dominic and his group as "diocesan preachers". Shortly after, Johannes of Navarra joined the preachers, and was professed on 28 August 1215.
So Dominic and his group had their own mandate to preach from the Papal Legate Petrus of Benevent (1214) and the Episcopal approval for the diocese of Toulouse by Bishop Foulques in May 1215.
1215: Fourth Council of Lateran in Rome.
Innocent III convoked the Fourth Council of the Lateran with the papal bull of
April 19, 1213. The Council gathered on 1 November of 1215 till 30
November 1215. Due to the great length of time between the Council's convocation
and meeting, a great many bishops had the opportunity to attend.
It was the 12th ecumenical council and is sometimes called "the General Council of Lateran" due to the presence of seventy-one Patriarchs and Metropolitan Bishops, four hundred and twelve Bishops, and nine hundred Abbots and Priors together with representatives of several Monarchs.
Bishop Foulques chose Dominic as companion, and they travelled to Rome. Dominic had not yet a detailed plan for his 'Order of Preachers'. Before the beginning of the Council, they had a meeting with the Pope. They would propose the Pope to confirm Dominic's Order of Preachers . Hellmeier o.c. p. 50. This meant a confirmation of the existing situation, also after a new Bishop of Toulouse, and a new political situation in Languedoc.
To their surprise, the idea of the Evangelican Preaching of Dominic and his group seemed to be liked by the Pope. He proposed that Dominic choose an existing monastic rule. Had Innocent a vision of a 'world-wide' preaching ?
Dominic and his group were not dismayed, but saw it as a 'adventure'. (Tugwell).
After the Council (30.11.1216), Dominic and Foulques, stayed some weeks in Rome to consult with the Pope about the founding of the Order. The Pope had determined that the founding of new religious orders was forbidden (canon 13); therefore Dominic proposed to choose the rule of Saint Augustin, which he and the Canons of the group knew and observed as Canons of Osma. Also their habit, used in Osma.
Returned in Toulouse, Bishop Foulques disallowed them the church of Saint Romanus in Toulouse; perhaps they used it earlier. They built there a priory with cells to study and sleep. They were now with sixteen brothers. Hellmeier o.c. p. 54-55.
1216: The death of Pope Innocent III, and the election of Pope Honorius III.
22 December 1216: Receiving the bull 'Religiosam Vitam'.
On 16 July 1216, Pope Innocent III died, and Honorius III was elected (18 Juli 1216-18 March 1227). He had not played an important part in the Curia of Innocent III, and was unknown with the talks between Pope Innocent III and Dominic. Very clearly that Dominic visited Pope Honorius III in Rome to let him confirm what was gained already.
On 22 December 1216 Pope Honorius III handed him the bull 'Relogiosam Vitam', in which he Dominic, prior of Saint Romanus in Toulouse and his brothers were as Canons recognized under the rule of Saint Augustin, and their properties were taken under papal protection, without speaking about their proposal to be allowed to preach the Gospel everywhere. This Bull was subscribed also by Hugolino, Bishop of Ostia.
During his days in Rome, Dominic informed the Pope and the staff of the Curia about the plans of Innocent and himself for preaching in the Church. On 19 January 1217, Dominic received the Bull, in which the Pope urged the University of Paris, to send professors and students of theology to come to Toulouse. Possibly Dominic would found a University or Theological Faculty in Toulouse.
On 21 January Pope Honorius III sent a brief, in which the Pope named the brothers of Toulouse: 'praedicantes'. Shortley before the signing of the Bul 'praedicantes' was replaced by 'praedicatores'. This is a very remarkable fact, because preaching was one of the main tasks of a Bishop.
On 7 February, Pope Honorius III corrected his former Bull, and determined that Dominic was allowed to found priories in other towns, where new members could take their vows. Hellmeier o.c. p. 56.
Dominic remained in Rome during the time of fasting, and visited the Sisters of the monastery Santa Maria in Tempulo and the recluses in the old city walls of Rome. He was also the guest of the Bishop of Ostia, Cardinal Hugolino, and met William de Monterrato, who after his theological studies in Paris, joined the Order in Paris.
1217: the sending out of the brothers.
Easter, Dominic travelled to France, and sent out four brothers to Spain, two
groups (total seven brothers) to Paris, with the commission to found new
settlements. (Hellmeier o.c. p. 58-60.)
A small group remained in Toulouse. In the middle of December, Dominic went with one brother to Rome.
1218 - + 6 August 1221.
11 Februar 1118, Pope Honorius commended in his bull 'Personas Religiosas' the Oder of the Preachers to all the Bishops and Ecclesiastical Superiors. Dominic requested many transcripts of this bull, necessary for the founding of new convents.
Dominic's experience had shown that volunteer preachers did not come in sufficient numbers and did not always persevere. The character of the Catharian heresy taught Dominic another lesson. Their leaders were austere, educated men, well versed in the Scriptures, who preached convincingly. These facts influenced the kind of Order Dominic founded. Its members would not only assume the usual obligations of the religious but would systematically study the Scriptures.
Dominic remained true to his training and experience. Within
the month that he founded the Order, he enrolled six disciples in the lecture
course of Alexander Stavensby at the cathedral school of Toulouse. He himself
had an excellent education and a deep love of God's word. He always carried
Matthew's Gospel and Paul's Epistles. Constantly he urged the friars "by word
and letter" to study the books of the Old and New Testaments. Studying the
Scriptures was the medieval way of studying theology. The Bible was the chief
textbook of the schools and universities. All other studies prepared the
students to enter the classes of the master of theology, who unfolded the
deepest meanings of the Sacred Text.
Against this background, Dominic's sending seven friars to Paris in August, 1217, takes on new meaning. By preference he founded houses in university cities, at Bologna, Palencia, Montpellier, and Oxford. By design he sought to enrol university students in the Order.
1218 - + 12 August 1221.
The rest of Dominic's life was spent either in Rome, where he was given the Church of San Sisto, or travelling. In 1218-19 he made a great tour (3,380 miles entirely on foot) from Rome to Toulouse and Spain and back, via Paris and Milano, and in 1220 a tour of Lombardy. Everywhere his communities were growing, and he planned many new foundations covering the key points of France and northern Italy. In Rome the Pope gave him the delicate task of reforming various groups of nuns, whom he finally gathered at San Sisto in 1221, when the men moved to Santa Sabina, which is still the residence of the master General of the order.
At Pentecost 20 May in 1220 the first General chapter of the order was held at Bologna, and a system of democratic representative government was devised. At the second General chapter, held on Pentecost, 2 June in 1221, also at Bologna, the order was divided geographically into provinces. Dominic filled the last six weeks of his life, following the second General chapter, with intense preaching throughout Lombardy. When he returned to Bologna at the end of July, he was burning with fever.
He died on the feast of the Transfiguration, August 6, 1221. Pope Gregory IX canonized him on July 3, 1234, comparing him as he did so to the apostles and to the great founders, Benedict, Bernard, Francis. His flame has never gone out. (Hinnebusch, o.c.)
Saint Dominic's feast day
Saint Dominic died in Bologna on August 6, 1221. His friend Pope
Gregory IX placed him on the list of Saints in 1234. In accordance with a
honourable custom, Dominic’s dying day is his anniversary. But at 6 august Pope
Sixtus II became commemorated. So the feast day of Saint Dominic was fixed in
1234 on 5 August.
The General Romen Calendar of 1558 moved the feast of Saint Dominic to 4 august.
Pope Paul VI moved in 1969 Saint Dominic’s day to August 7, but that is the death of Saint Cajetanus (1469-1534), founder of the Theatines. At the insistence of the Provost of the Teatimes, the Master of the Dominican Order, Anicetus Fernandez, asked the Romen authorities to move Saint Dominic’s day. He hoped for August 4.
But on March 26, 1970, the ‘Congregation of Sacred Rites and Ceremonies’ fixed the date for Saint Dominic’s commemoration on August 8. So Saint Dominic remains a wandering pilgrim during the centuries!
For the legends of Saint Dominic: click
The real face of Saint Dominic.
The Dominican Order preserved the relics of
Dominic in the tomb in the Saint Dominic's chapel at the basilica of San
Domenico in Bologna. During WO II the relics were safeguarded. After the war,
before the translation to the basilica in Bologna, Pope Pius XII, lay Dominican,
authorized the Dominicans of Bologna to investigate the
relics of the Founder.
Because the Provincial of Lombardy had not received permission to open the casket, Professor Fabio Frassetto of the University of Bologna examined the remains by X-ray.
Many photographs were taken from many angles.
Almost all the bones are still there after nearly eight hundred years (1221).
The marble bust by Carlo Pini (1946).
Pilipinas 2008, Mi 4026, Sc --.
Doctors and anthropologists were able to study the photographs and give an accurate description of the skeleton and physical characteristics of Saint Dominic.
In 1946, Carlo Pini sculptured a marble bust according to anthropometric measurements of the skull as determined by Professor Fabio Frassetto.
This sculpture is preserved in the Saint Dominic's chapel in the San Domenico in Bologna. The X-ray film can be seen along the back wall of this chapel, where the remains of the saint rest in the splendid Arca di San Domenico under the cupola.
profile of Saint Dominic by sister Cecilia (1243).
In 1243, as part of the process towards Dominic's canonisation, information was gathered about him from a variety of sources. One of these was Sister Cecilia, who at 16 was part of the first community at San Sisto, Rome, and new Saint Dominic very well.
She gave a description of his physical appearance:
"He was of middle height, his countenance beautiful with little colouring, his hair and beard very fair, and his eyes strikingly fine. A certain radiance shone from his forehead and from under his eyelashes attracting love and respect. His hands were long and beautiful, and his voice strong and sonorous. -- He was always radiant and joyful, except when moved to compassion by some misfortune of his neighbours. "
Sister Cecilia's description is proved reliable by the scientific examination. She said he was of medium height -- the measurements show that he was 1.7 metres tall. At the bottom of the reliquary, the examiners found some shreds of Saint Dominic's hair. It was exactly the colour that Cecilia had said it was.
Site OPFAM, 2 November 2008.
Before 1946, all the paintings etcetera
are symbolic, without the white habit,
capuchon of the earlier Canons of Osma.
As founder of an Order Dominic carries a book and as a holy man a lily.
PAINTINGS BY ARTISTS
Madonna of the Rosary (Dominic receives the rosary),
painting by Niccoló Circignano (il Pomarancio il Vecchio) +1597.
Preserved in the parish church of Saint John the Baptist in Pomarancio, Italy.
Italy 1997, Mi 2521, Sc 2164.
2 March1642-30 April 1693
de Guzmán by Claudio Coello (02.03.1642-20.04.1693),
Prado Museum, Madrid.
Sierra Leone 2000, Mi 3687, Sc 2342 e.
August 1494-5 March 1534
The mystic marriage of St. Catherine with Saints Francis
and Dominic with lilly.
National Gallery of Art, Washington.
Cambodia 1984, Mi 622, Sc 542, sh 547.
The same painting issued by: Laos 1984, Mi 758, Sc 569.
Vietnam 1984, Mi Bl 31, Sc --
This stamp, dedicated to the fifth centenary of the birth of St. Pius
is inspired by the altarpiece by Grazio Cossoli (1597), which is placed in the Chapel of the Rosary, located in Santa Croce di Bosco Marengo,
in the Province of Alessandria, Italy.
The altarpiece, painted to commemorate the victory in the Battle of Lepanto
(07.10.1571), shows Our Lady of the Rosary between St. Dominic and
of Siena, venerated
by Cardinal Bonelli and St. Pius V, as well as by Philip II and Doge Mocenigo.
Vatican City 2004,
Mi 1483, Sc
21 May 1471-6 April 1528
Albrecht Dürer completed
his great altarpiece The Feast of the Rose Garlands for the funeral chapel of
the Germans in the church of St.
Bartholomew in Venezia in 1506.
The Child gives a garland of roses to Pope Julius II. The Madonna gives a garland to the Emperor Maximilian. Dominic, in Mary’s name, to clergymen and civil authorities. The painting is now preserved in the Narodni Galerie at Prague.
Dürer's painting, or details, are many times reproduced on stamps.
Aitutaki 1986, Mi 596, Sc 404d: The
Virgin with Child.
Chad 1984, Mi B; 215, Sc 510: central part with Saint Dominic.
Czechoslovakia 1989, Mi Bl 92, Sc 2743.
Czechoslovakia 1968, Mi 1805, Sc
1555:the entire painting. Czechoslovakia 1971, Mi 2036, Sc 1781: detail
Fujeira 1971, Mi 665, Sc --:central part without Dominic.
Germany 1961/64, Mi 350, Sc 827: head of Dürer.
West Berlin 1961, Mi 202, Sc JN179:head of Dürer.
Grenada 1001, Mi 2378, Sc2029: the
Nicaragua 1978, Mi l 109, Sc C953: central part with Dominic.
Niger 1979, Michel Bl 22; Sc 486: the whole painting.
Niue 1978, Mi Bl 8,9; Sc 232: central part with Dominic.
Niue 1987, Mi 731, Bl 111,112; Sc 550:central part
Paraguay 1987, Mi 4172, C704: central part without Dominic.
Sierra Leone 1991, Mi --, Sc 1437: The Virgin and central part.
To works of art PART II.
To the works of art and the legends PART III.
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