3 June 1770 - 20 June 1820
A brief biography.
Manuel - José Joaquín del
Corazón de Jesús - Belgrano was born in Buenos Aires on June 3, 1770, into
a wealthy and prominent criollo (Creole) family. He studied
in Spain at the University of Salamanca in 1786 and at Valladolid,
where he graduated with a degree in law in 1793. During his
residence in Spain he studied languages and economics and
acquainted himself with the ideas of enlightened French and
Spanish authors. As advocate he took his oath on the Immaculate
Conception of the Virgin Mary and received the Cross of the
University with the medal of the Virgin and the blue-white bands
When Charles IV named Belgrano secretary of the newly organized Consulado of Buenos Aires in 1793, he enthusiastically accepted. While on the Consulado he petitioned for certain reforms: he urged opening new educational institutes and called for legislation to foster development of agriculture, commerce, trade, and communications. In 1799 he organized the Academia de Náutica. In 1802 he was a member of the fraternity of the Virgin, Immaculate Conception founded in the priory of the Franciscans in Buenos Aires by Charles V.
Argentina 1935, Mi 398, Sc 418.
He received his first military
experience during the unsuccessful
British invasion of the Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata in 1806-07.
Postage stamp for printed matter.
Argentina 1935, Mi 399, Sc 4.
The symbols of the freedom
with the flag of General Belgrano.
Argentina 1958, Mi 681, Sc 675.
Virgin of Luján, Patroness of Argentina.
Argentina 1960, Mi 753, Sc 722.
When Río de la Plata broke with Spain in 1810, Belgrano became a member of its ruling junta that tried to maintain its territorial integrity. Belgrano became General and marched with his troops to Luján, and dedicated them to the Blessed Virgin of Luján in 1811.
75th Anniversary of the pontifical
coronation of the Blessed Virgin of
Argentina 1962, Mi 796, Sc 738.
After outlying portions of the country were lost, Belgrano was sent with a small army to bring what is now Paraguay under the authority of the junta but was unsuccessful. In 1812 he defeated pro-Spanish forces at Tucumán and hoisted the blue-white-blue flag on the artillery position in Rosario.
The soldiers attributed the victory of Salta (20 February 1813) to the Virgin of Luján. The Republicans required that Belgrano all the prisoners of war killed, but he refused.
Victory of Rosario, 1813. Creation of the Argentine
Argentina 1920, Mi 293, Sc 281.
He was superseded in 1814 by José de San Martín as commander of the army. Belgrano was sent (banished?) with Bernardino Rivadavia to Europe to inquire the organisation of a monarchical type of government of Rio de la Plata.
Returned in 1816 he participate in the meeting of Tucumán, where the independence of Argentina was proclaimed on 9 July 1816.
Belgrano's flag, - blue-white-blue -,
became the national flag. Belgrano
proposed that Argentina should have a constitutional
monarchy led by an Inca descendant, but this idea
did not gain support.
Declaration of Independence,
Tucumán, 9 July 1816. Argentina 1916, Mi 191, Sc
In Tucumán was also the
Dominican Justo de Santa María de Oro
(1771-19.10.1836), delegate of San Juan de la Frontera. On his
proposal the Congress declared Santa Rosa (de Lima) as Patroness
of Argentina. Justo de Santa Maria, patriot, first Argentine Bishop.
Argentina 1974, Mi 1169, Sc 1018.
Belgrano's health suffered greatly during his
multiple expeditions and
campaigns, held in generally bad He died at the age of 50 of dropsy,
very poor and practically forgotten by the national government that he
had served on 20 June 1820.
Sources: wikipedia and others.
Belgrano, friend of the
Dominicans, and a
member of the Third Order of
Saint Dominic, was buried in the church of the Dominican priory in
Buenos Aires. Belgrano's mausoleum on the Plaza de Mayo in Buenos Aires.
Argentina 1920, Mi 242, Sc 280.
A monument complex (Monumento Nacional a la Bandera, National Flag Memorial) was built in 1957 in honor of the flag, in Rosario. The Flag Memorial and the park that surrounds it are the seat of national celebrations every Flag Day, on June 20, the anniversary of Belgrano's death.
A small town in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, Villa General Belgrano, is named after him, as well as "Avenida Belgrano" in the City of Buenos Aires, and part of the avenue that leads to the Flag Memorial in Rosario (Avenida Belgrano). Additionally, there is a northern barrio within Buenos Aires proper that carries the name Belgrano.
His memory-day, - 20 June - is named 'Dia de la Bandera'.
<<< Belgrano by Jean Gericault. Argentina 1970, Mi 1057, Sc 918.
The creation of the Flag. Bas-relief by José Fioravan. Argentina 1970, Mi 1058,
General Manuel Belgrano is many times honoured with stamps with his portrait. Already in 1870 General Manuel Belgrano is honoured with other heads f the Revolution: 1867, Michel 21, Scott 18A; 1876, Michel 33, Scott 33; 1888, Michel 59, Scott 64B. There are 23 stamps of Argentine; 1 of Bolivia 1909, Michel 84, Scott 89; and two with the same picture of Uruguay 1967, Michel block 10, Scott C318; 1973, Michel block 18, Scott C349.
Here we show some of the stamps.
monument to Manuel >>>>
Belgrano by Hector Rocha
in Buenos Aires.
Argentina 1961, Mi 780, Sc 730.
Manuel Belgrano and Patriot José Artigas. Argentina 1967, Mi Bl 18, Sc 839.
Idem with Patriot Juan Jos. Castelli. Argentina 1960, Mi 728, Sc c76b.
Argentina 1984, Mi 1713, Sc 1462A.
Some Bases in the Antartica are named after General Belgrano.
Base General Belgrano in Antartica. Cover with the name of the base, also in the postmark.
Argentina 1958, Mi 679, Sc 673. Postmark 01.01.1959.
<<<<General Belgrano Base, Antartica.
Argentina 1965, Mi 816, Sc 169.
Argentina 1986, Mi 1801, Sc 1559d. >>>>>>
A bridge, many ships, and a Barbour are named after Manuel Belgrano.
General Belgrano Bridge, Chaco-Corrientes.
Argentina 1974, Mi 1199, Sc 1025.
Brigantine Belgrano by Emilio Biggeri.
Argentina 1974, Mi 1190, Sc 1026.
Cruiser General Belgrano. Argentina 1992, Mi 2125, Sc 1768.
The Falklands War, 1982.
In the Falklands
War the British atomic submarine H.M.S. Conqueror sighted
in the afternoon
of the 1st May 1982 the cruiser General Belgrano, a World War 2 US-built warship
lacking sonar, and its
escort of two Exocet-equipped destroyers, which were a pre-eminent threat to the
task force. The 2nd of May saw the British War Cabinet clear the Conqueror to
remove the Belgrano from the theatre. H.M.S. Conqueror fired a pattern of
torpedoes from around 2,000 yards and scored two hits.
The Argentine cruiser sank rapidly thereafter; 321 men of the crew of 1093 were killed.
Although Belgrano's escort did try to sink the Conqueror with depth-charges they were unsuccessful. The loss of one of its most prestigious units probably caused the Argentine Navy to recall its other units, including their only aircraft carrier, the Veinticinco de Mayo to port.
The Argentinian Marine named the Naval Base 'Puerto Belgrano'
Argentina 1996, Mi 2318, Sc 1944.
Manuel Belgrano National Naval School, Bicent.
Brigg's name: 'San Francisco Xavier.'
Argentina 1999, Mi 2541, Sc 2092. On order.
The cruiser 'General Belgrano'. On order.
Argentina 2007, Mi 3114, Sc
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